Qasr Al Hir Al Gharbi & Al Sharki
Often called the Desert palaces there are two, Qasr Al Hir Al
Sharki (Eastern) and Qasr Al Hir Al Gharbi (Western).
Qasr Al Hir Al Sharki (Eastern)
Located approximately 120 Km east of Palmyra,
is the first of these two castles, Qasr Al Hir Al Sharki. This
Castle's grounds actually consist of two separate castles, which are
situated 43 meters apart, a large garden area and a small village.
Although there is much speculation as to what this castle's
purpose was for, the most probable theory is that it was the site of
a large agricultural settlement, with some defensive purpose against
some of the desert tribes and the threat of Mesopotamia. It seems at
first sight to have some Byzantine or Roman origin, although most
believe that the Roman capitals were taken from nearby sites or were
carved by Christian craftsmen. It was most probably built in the
700s under the Umayyad Caliph Hisham. After the Umayyads were
overturned the Abbassids found some use in keeping it flourishing
(by then it had become a center for controlling caravan traffic,
hence commercial wealth), however only on a small scale. It was
later resettled in the 11th century till the 13th and with the
Mongol invasion was abandoned.
The Castle grounds were surrounded by a mud brick wall, which can
still be seen at some points. You can also see very little of the
garden area and the village. As for the two castle buildings, their
gateways face each other at a distance of 43 meters and have a
minaret in between, this minaret could be the third oldest minaret
in Islam. The gateways are well designed with a mixture of
Byzantine, Arab and Mesopotamian architecture and have on both
sides' large cylindrical towers. The smaller eastern half of the
couple is the most beautiful feature of this site. The western
castle is by far the larger of the two and has a large area for
habitation. There are also some remains of baths to the north of the
Qasr Al Hir Al Gharbi (Western)
This castle, located 80 Km away from Palmyra on the Damascus
road, is the second of the Desert palaces. Built by the Umayyad
Caliph Hisham Bin Abd Al Malik in 727 AD, this site used to be a
It was used as an outpost to Damascus,
to keep eye on the Desert tribes and defensive arrangements as well
as being a hunting lodge. It was used by the Ayyubids and the
Mamelukes but was deserted permanently after the Mongol invasions.
The castle itself is square in shape with 70-meter sides. The
central gateway to this castle is very beautiful, and has been moved
to be used as the entrance to the National museum in Damascus.
With its semi-cylindrical towers on the sides of the gateway,
pillars, and the geometric shapes, it reflected a mixture of
Persian, Byzantine and Arab architecture.
As for the rest of the castle, not much remains except for a
reservoir to collect the water from the Harbaqa dam, a Hammam and a