The Syria of today offers tourists as much a cultural experience as a sightseeing one, where ancient history provides a fascinating backdrop to everyday life on the streets                          

 


ISLAMIC-ARABIC COIN AGE

Contents :

  1. Before Islam.

  2. The Umayyad Period.

  3. The Abbasid Period.

  4. The Hamdanid, Tulunid, Ikhshid, Aghlabid, Fatimid States.

  5. The Saljuqs , Atabegs , Ayyubids and Banu Urtuq.

  6. The Mamluks and Ottomans.

Before Islam

Sassanid Coins before Islam :

The Sassanid money of Iran was current in the commercial exchange of the whole Orient before the advent of Islam. As the Arabs had close commercial dealings with Iran via Iraq and the Arabian Sea, they used to bring the Sassanid money for use in the Arabian Peninsula. They named this money the "Khosroites", pertaining to Khosrau whose portrait was struck on these coins. To the Arabs, the word Khosrau is identified with Caesar of the Romans and both words mean the great King. There are two kings in Persia of this name : Khosrau I ( 531 - 579 A.D. ) and Khosrau II ( 590 - 628 A.D. ) Later on, during the period of decadence, there were three kings of the same name, but they were not famous.

The Sassanid coins were as under :

— The Dinars: The word is originally Greek "Dinarus", it was known in Persia before the Arab Conquest. They are struck in gold and are very rare.

2 — The Dirhams: The word is derived from the Persian word "Drm" and from the Greek word "drachma". These coins are struck in sliver and are found in abundance.

3 — The Fals: The word is derived from the Greek word "follis". They are struck in copper and are also very rare.

The Sassanid coins, since the reign of Khosrau , bear on the obverse a portrait of Khosrau turning his head towards his left shoulder. In the field, to the right, the name of the King is written and a caption of glorification is inscribed behind the head. On the reverse, the coins bear a heart in the form of an altar escorted by two persons ( priest or guards ?). In the field, to the right, the place of minting is written in initial letters, and to the left the year of the reign. All the inscriptions are drawn up in Pahlavi which is derived from the ancient Syrio-Aramaean Script.

The Sassanid Arabic Coins :

  1. The Sassanid coins remained in circulation even after Islam. but in the year 31 A.H. one or more Arabic words appear on the margin of the face such as: good, in the name of God or in the name of Allah my God ... ( These coins were named: the anonymous Sassanid-Arab Coins ).
  2. The hearth and the same form remained as they are, but the name of the Sassanid King was dropped and replaced by the name of the Caliph or the presumed Caliph written in Pahlavi : Mu'awiah b. Abi Sufyan , Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan , Abdallah b. az-Zubayr , Qatari b. al-Fuja’ah. Also the name of the Governors:
    Ziyadah b. Abi Sufyan ( 41 - 54 A.H.). Mas’ab b. az-Zubayr , Ubaydallah b    Ziyad , al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf , Samrah b. Jandab, Abdallah b. Amir , Salam b. Ziyad, Abdallah b. Khazim, al-Mouhlab b. Abi Safrah. and Yazid b. al-Mouhlab.
  3. The name of al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf appeared in Arabic on some of the coins.
  4. In the year 73 and 74 A.H. a Sassanid-Arabic Dirham appeared in the name of Khosrau II. but the date and place of minting (Damascus) are written in Arabic. In 75 A.H. a Sassanid-Arabic Dirham appeared without the name of Khosrau. All its inscriptions were drawn up in Arabic. It bears the portrait of the Sassanid King on the obverse and the effigy of Adb-al-Malik b. Marwan on the reverse. The field to the right bears Arabic inscriptions read " Commander of the believers " to the left "Khalaft" ( Caliphate) Allah.

 

The Byzantine Coinage before the advent of Islam:

Before the Moslem Conquest , Syria, Egypt and North Africa were under the Byzantine rule. The coinage in circulation at that time were : the gold Solidus, the silver Drachma and the copper Fals. It is noteworthy that the gold and copper coins were plentiful. whereas the silver coins were relatively small in number. On the other hand, the Byzantine coins bore names of cities in Asia Minor and not those of the subject countries.

There were many types of the Byzantine coins before the advent of Islam : The obverse depicts the portrait of the Emperor and the letter M with place and year of minting on the reverse. Sometimes. the portrait of the Emperor and the Empress is depicted. The Dinar and the Dirham bear the portrait of the Emperor or his portrait and that of his children on the obverse: a cross placed on a pedestal of four steps with the place and year of minting on the reverse:

The Development of Arabic Coins on the Byzantine Model:

These coins have passed through a number of stages. Important among which are :

  1. The Byzantine type remained predominant, but some errors in the orthography proved that the coins were struck by Arabs.
  2. The names of Arabic cities such as Damascus, Baalbek, and Iliya (Jerusalem) began to appear on the coins .... These names have never appeared on the purely Byzantine coins.
  3. Arabic words such as good, permissible, perfect ... began to appear.
  4. The names of cities are written in Arabic.
  5. The effigy of the Arabic Caliph replaced that of Byzantine. The elements (globe or circle ) are added at the top of the cross in order to obliterate its character. The captions are also written in Arabic : Muhammad the apostle of God on the obverse ... There is no god but God, and the city of minting on the reverse.
  6. In the field to the right of the effigy of the Caliph, there is a caption read: " Commander of the believers " . To the left "Khalfat ( such and such ) Allah ".
  7. The effigy of Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan and his name appears clearly but the date of minting is not mentioned, however, the effigy and the date of minting appear vividly on the gold coins. There are a few Dinars in the world of the years 74, 75, 76, and 77 A.H.

Enlarged Fals in the name of Abd-al-Malik. Prince of faithful. Struck at Aleppo.

 

N.B. The effigy of Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan on the Sassanid-Arab Coins is just like that which is on the developed Byzantine- Arab Coins.

This indicates that the two types of coins have developed gradually until they met the dated dinars that we have just mentioned. Thereafter, the purely Arabic Dinar of 77 A.H. made its appearance. This dinar is a rarity in the world since it was probably struck in the end of 77 A.H.

Effigy of Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan on a dinar dated 74 A.H.

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The Umayyad Period ( The purely Arabic Coins )

The Dinar : Its weight ranging from 4 to 4.30 g. roughly, and its diameter from 18 to 21.5 mm roughly.

The captions written on the Dinar struck in 77 A.H. partially differ from the Umayyad one.

  1. The word (in) is mentioned before the word (year) between 77 and 80 A.H. After this year the word (in) is dropped.
  2. The place of minting has disappeared on the Dinar, but appeared on the one struck in Africa and Andalusia.
  3. The caption of Khalafat (in the middle) disappeared from the Diner struck in Africa and Andalusia.

The following is an example of the ordinary Dinar:

 

Reverse

Allah, the One, the eternally besought of all. He begetteth not, nor was begotten.

The circular margin

In the Name of God this Dinar was struck (in) the year...

 

obverse

There is no god but God the Unique, without Partner.

The circular margin

Muhammad is the messenger of Allah sent with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religions.

Umayyad Dinar , struck in 100 A.H.

 

An example of the Umayyad Dinar struck in Africa and Andalusia :

In the Name of God, the

Beneficent, the Merciful.

Struck in Africa in…

There is no god but God.

the Unique. without partner

Muhammad is the Messenger of

Allah... the religion of truth.

This caption ( in the middle on the reverse ) appeared in this from on the Dinars of Africa and Andalusia. ( 101 A.H.). It remained so for a while and then returned to the regular form.

The Dirham : Its weight ranging from 2.11 to 3.05 g. roughly. and its diameter from 24 to 30 mm roughly.

Captions : differs from that of the Dinar as far as the order is concerned and completion of the Koranic ( Koran ) verses as the face of the Dirham is larger. On the other hand, the circular margin of the Dirham is surrounded on one side or on both sides with circles consisting of granules and a number of small rings distributed among these circles.

The most ancient Umayyad Dirham known so far is dated 79 A.H.

Example :

Reverse

Allah, the One, the eternally besought of all. He begetteth not, nor was begotten, and there is none comparable unto him.

Margin

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, sent ... polytheists.

Obverse

There is no god but God the Unique, without Partner.

 

 

In the Name of God. This Dirham is struck (in) …

 

The Fals: The weights and diameters are various ... their captions are likewise various… some of them are dateless, nameless and bear no captious save ( there is no god but God, the Unique, without partner on the obverse and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ) on the reverse. Some bear the date only or the place of minting,  the others the name of the Caliph, the Crown Prince or the Prince. There are also some coins bearing all the required information.

Archaeologically speaking the coins which bear all information particularly the names of the Princes and Governors are of much importance to us. Some of these coins bear a figure of an animal,. a palm-tree, geometrical forms or decorative elements.

It is better to give a list of the names of the Caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty and the period of their rule :

Name

A.H.

A.D.

1.      Mu’awiyah b. Abi Sufyan

41 - 60

661 – 680

2.      Yazid b. Mu’awiyah

60 - 64

680 – 683

3.      Mu’awiyah II b. Yazid

64 -

683

4.      Marwan b. al-Hakam

64 - 65

683 – 685

5.      Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan

65 – 86

685 – 705

6.      Al-Walid b. Abd-al-Malik

86 – 96

705 – 715

7.      Suleynian b. Abd-al-Malik

96 – 99

715 – 717

8.      Umar b. Abd-al-Aziz

99 – 101

717 – 720

9.      Yazid b. Abd-al-Malik

101 – 105

720 – 724

10.  Hisham b. Abd-al-Malik

105 – 125

724 - 743

11.  Al-Walid II b. Yazid II

125 – 126

743 – 744

12.  Yazid I b. al-Walid I

126

744

13.  Ibrahim b. al-Waild I

126

744

14.  Marwan II b. Muhammad

127 – 132

749

 

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The Abbasid Period

The captions do not differ much from of the Umayyads. At first, the name of the Caliph or the crown Prince began to appear on the Dirhams then on the Dinars from time to time in the reign of Harun ar-Rashid. The name of the Caliph began to appear without interruption since the reign of al-Mu’tasim-billah, but the name of the city of minting remained fixed on the dirhams and fals since the reign of al-Ma’mun; then it became fixed on the dinars since the reign of al-Mu’tasim-billah.

There was an interruption in the issuance of the Abbasid coins after the reign of

at -Ta’i’-lillah. It lasted until the reign of al-Muttaqi Li-Amr il-lah. The issuance of coins became regular once more until the end of the Abbasid Period.

 

Name

A.H.

A.D.

1.      Abu-l-Abbas Abdallah al-Saffah

132 - 136

749 - 754

2.      Abu Ja’far Abdallab al Mansur

136 – 158

754 – 775

3.      Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Mahdi

158 – 169

775 – 785

4.      Abu Muhammad Musa al-Hadi

169 – 170

785 – 886

5.      Abu Ja’far Harun ar-Rashid

170 – 193

786 – 809

6.      Abu Musa Muhammad al-Amin

193 – 198

809 – 813

7.      Abu Ja’far Abdallah al Ma’mun

198 – 218

813 – 833

8.      Abu Ishaq Muhammad aI-Mu’tasim-billah

218 – 227

833 – 842

9.      Abu .Ja’far Harun al Wathiq-billah

227 – 232

842 – 847

10.  Abu-l-Fadl Ja’far al Mutawakkil-ala-l-Lah

232 – 247

847 – 861

11.  Abu Ja’far Muhammad al-Muntasir-billah

247 – 248

861 – 862

12.  Abu-1-Abbas Ahmad al Musta’in-billah

248 – 251

862 – 866

13.  Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Mu’tazz-billah

251 – 255

866 – 869

14.  Abu Ishaq Muhammad al-Muhtadi-billah

255 – 256

869 – 870

15.  Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad al Mu’tamid-ala-l-lah

256 – 279

870 – 892

16.  Abu-l-Abbas Abmad al Mu’tadid-billah

279 - 289

892 – 902

17.  Abu Muhammad Ali al-Muktafi-billah

289 – 295

902 – 908

18.  Abu-l-Fadl Ja’far al-Muqtadir-billah

295 – 320

908 – 932

19.  Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Qahir-billah

320 – 322

932 – 934

20.  Abu-l-Abbas Ahniad ar Radi-billah

322 – 329

934 – 940

21.  Abu Ishaq lbrahim al Muttaqi-billah

329 – 333

940 – 944

22.  Abu-l-Qasim Abdallah al Mustakfi-billah

333 – 334

944 – 974

23.  Abu-l-Qasim al-Fadl al Muti' Lil-lah

334 – 363

946 - 974

24.  Abu-l-Fadl Abd-al-Karim at-Ta’i' Lil-lah

363 – 381

974 – 994

( After this Caliph, an interruption of issue of coins occurred . It lasted until the reign of al-Muqtafi li-Amr-l-lah )

25.  Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad al Qadir-billah

381 – 422

994 – 1031

26.  Abu Ja’far Abdallah al Qa’im bi-Amr il-lah

422 – 467

1031 – 1075

27.  Abdallah al-Mutadi bi Amr il-lah

468 – 487

1075 – 1094

28.  Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad al Mustazhir-billah

487 – 512

1094 – 1118

29.  Abu Mansur al-Fadl al-Mustarshid-billah

512 – 529

1118 – 1135

30.  Abu Ja’far al-Mansur ar-Rashid-billah

529 – 530

1135 – 1126

( The Abbasid Coins reappeared )

31.  Abu Abd Muhammad al-Muqtafi li-Amr-il-lah

530 – 555

1136 – 1160

32.  Abu al-Muzaffar Yusuf al-Mustanjid-billah

555 – 566

1160 – 1170

33.  Abu Muhammad at- hasan al-Mustadi' bi-Amr-l- lah

566 – 575

1170 – 1180

34.  Abu-l-Abbas Abmad an-Nasir li-Din Allah

575 – 622

1180 – 1225

35.  Abu Nasr Muhammad az-Zahir bi-Amr-il-lah

622 – 623

1225 – 1226

36.  Abu Ja’far al-Mansur al Mustansir-billah

623 – 640

1226 – 1242

37.  Aba Ahmad Abdallah al Musta’sim-billah

640 - 656

1242 - 1258

The following are the captions of the Abbasid Coins

The First Dinar :

Reverse

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

In the Name of God.     This

Dinar struck in ....

Obverse

There is no god but God, the

Unique with no partner.

Muhammad is the Messenger of

Allah was sent .... all of it.

The Dinar of Al-Ma’mun and his successors.

 

 

The Caliph

(As noted above)

Al-Ma’mun

In the Name of Allah, this

Dinar is struck in ...

To Allah is the Command before and alter; on that day, the believers shall rejoice at the triumph of Allah.

 

 

 

 

(As noted above)

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah was sent … all of it.

 

The Dinar of al-Musta’sim-billah, the last of the Abbasid Caliphs.

The disbelievers are

averse

Praise be to Allah Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah Peace be upon him

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah sent with the guidance and the religion of truth, that he may cause it to prevail over all religions

 

However much

To Allah is the command

Before and after

There is no god but God, the Unique, without partner. al Musta’sim - billah the Prince of the believers by the triumph of Allah.

In the Name of Allah. This Dinar is struck in Madinet as-Salam in..

On that day the believers

Will rejoice

 

N.B. :         

  1. The weight and diameter of the Dinar remained fixed like that of the Umayyads from the beginning of the Abbasid Period down to al-Ma’mun Period.
  2. Some names and sometimes the initial of a person appeared on the Dinars. Presumably the name of the
  3. There are other specime captions besides those already mentioned.

 

The First Dirham : In the early years of the Abbasid rule, the captions remained as they were in the Umayyad Period particularly those minted in the far-flung areas such as Africa and Maru. The captions of the Abbasid Dirhams are as under:

 

Reverse

Muhammad is

the Messenger

of Allah

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, was sent …the disbelievers.

 

Averse

There is no god but God, the

unique, without partner.

In the Name of Allah. This Dir- ham Is struck with .... in…

 

Sometimes the captions of the Abbasid Dirhams vary from those of the Dinars. Here is an example of the Dirham of al-Hadi, his name appears in the caption:

Muhammad is

the Messenger

of Allah

Peace be upon him, the

Caliph al-Hadi

 

 

( As noted above )

 

Other captions in which the name of the Crown Prince appears :

 

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, the Caliph al-Hiadi, what Harun b. the Prince of the believers has instructed.

 

( As noted above )

 

N.B. :

1.      The marginal caption made its appearance since the reign of al-Ma’mun. i.e. to God is the authority.... with the triumph of Allah and remained till the end of the Abbasid Age.

2.      The Dirhams differ much from the Dinars as regards the weight, size, mint, decorations, middle and marginal captions etc...

The Abbasid Fals: They are just like the Umayyad fals but vary from the dirhams in the weight. size and the order of captions. They are distinguished from the Dinars and Dirhams because the fals bear the names of the governors and Princes and as such they provide us with correct information in this respect.

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The Hamdanid State  ( 293 - 399 A.H. = 905 - 1008 A.D. )

This dynasty ruled in al-Mowsil .One of its members was promoted to the rank of " The Prince of the Princes " in Baghdad in 330 A.H. = 941 A.D. Their dynasty reached the zenith of  its glory in Northern Syria and Aleppo was its Capital. Its influence stretched all over Syria for a while. After Sayf ad-Dawlah the rule was shaky in the lands of the Princes :

Name

A.H.

A.D.

  1. Abu-l-Hayja Abdailah b. Hamdan ( al-Mawsil)

293 – 301

905 – 913

  1. Nasir ad-Dawlah Hasan b. Hamdan ( Deputy Prince at Mawsil) Prince of Princes

        314

330 – 331

        926

941 – 942

  1. Sayf ad-Dawlah Abu-l-Hasan Ali ( Aleppo)

333 – 356

944 – 966

  1. Sa’d ad-Dawlah Abu-1-Ma’ali Sharif ( Aleppo )

356 – 381

966 – 991

  1. Sa’id ad-Dawlah Ahu-l-Fadl Sa’id ( Aleppo)

381 - 329

991 - 1001

 

The Fatimid State took over the power from the hands of the latter rulers in 399 A.H. = 1008 A.D.

 

 

The Tulunid State ( 254 - 292 A.H. = 868 - 905 A.D. )

The Tulunid dynasty ruled Egypt and Syria during the 3rd Century A.H. the 9th Century A.D. at a time when the power of the Abbasids was very weak. Ahmad b. Tulun carried out important reforms in Egypt and constructed the city of al-Qata’i’ The direct Abbasid rule was reestablished in 292 A.H. - 898 A.D.:

Name

A.H.

A.D.

  1. Ahmad b. Tulun

254 – 270

868 – 883

  1. Khumarawayh b. Ahmad

270 – 282

883 – 895

  1. Jaysh b. Khumarawayh

282 – 283

895 – 896

  1. Harun b. Khumarawayh

283 – 292

896 – 905

  1. Shaiban b. Ahmad

292 -

905

The displayed Tulunid Coins :

Ahmad b. Tulun                        The Dinar         270 - Egypt

Khumarawayh b. Ahmad          The Dinar         271 - Egypt

Harun b. Khumarawayh            The Dinar         285 - Egypt

                                                The Dinar         290 - Egypt

                                                The Dinar        282 - Egypt

 

The Ikhshid State ( 323 - 358 A.H = 934 - 969 A.D.)

Muhammad al-Ikhshidid assumed the rule of Egypt in 323 A.H. = 934 A.D. and was able to take possession of Palestine and Damascus. This state shouldered the burden of fighting the Qarmatians. The Fatimids put an end to this dynasty:

 

Name

A.H.

A.D.

  1. Muhammad al-Ikhshid

323 – 334

934 – 946

  1. Abu -1-Qasim b. al-Ikhshid

334 – 349

946 – 960

  1. Ali b. al-Ikhshid

349 – 355

960 – 966

  1. Kafur

355 – 357

966 – 968

  1. Abu-l-Fawaris Ahmad b. Ali

357 – 358

968 - 969

 

The Aghlabid State (184 - 296 A.H. = 800 - 908 A.D.)

This State was established in Afriqiyah ( Africa Minor, i.e. mainly Tunisia ) by Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab with the permission of the Abbasid Caliph Harun ar-Rashid. In fact ar-Rashid agreed to grant this state a kind of political independence to enable the Aghlabids to observe the activities of the Idrisid State, which seceded from the Abbasid State in 172 A.H. = 788 A.D. at the hands of Ali’s family, and to put an end to this state.

The Aghlabid State exercised authority beyond the western frontier of Egypt to the west as far as the frontiers of the Idrisid Maghrib (Morocco) and took possession of Sicily. The state was ultimately exterminated at the hands of the Fatimids.

The Aghlabid Coinage is distinguished from that of the Abbasid by the existence of the word "Ghalab" at the top of the middle caption on the reverse and the name of the amir (Prince) at the bottom :

 

Name

A.H.

A.D.

  1. Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab

184 – 196

800 – 811

  1. Abdallah b. Ibrahim

196 – 201

811 – 816

  1. Ziyadatalla I b. Ibrahim

201 – 223

816 – 837

  1. Al-Aghlab b. Ibrahim

223 – 226

837 – 840

  1. Muhammad I b. al-Aghlab

226 – 242

840 – 856

  1. Ahmad b. Muhammad

242 – 249

856 – 863

  1. Ziyadatallah II b. Muhammad

249 – 250

863 – 864

  1. Muhammad I b. Ahmad

250 – 261

864 – 874

  1. Ibrahim II b. Ahmad

261 – 289

874 – 902

  1. Abdallah II b. Ibrahim

289 – 290

902 – 903

  1. Ziyadatallah I b. Abdallab

290 - 296

903 - 908

 

The displayed coins of the Aghlabids are:

Abdallah I                     The Dinar 198 A.H.

Muhammad I                The Dinar 236 A.H

Ahmad                         The Dinar 244 A.H.

Muhammad II              The Dinar 257 A.H.

 

.

The Fatimid State (297 - 567 A.H. 909 - 1171 A.D.)

This state which seceded completely from the Abbasid State was established by Abu Muhammad Ubaydallah al-Mabdi billah by the assistance of his missionary-Commander Abu Abdallah al-Shi’i. Ubaydallah established himself first at

al-Qayrawan. The Fatimids, later on, took possession of North Africa, Sicily and some Islands of the Mediterranean Sea. During the reign of al-Mu’izz li-din-il-lah, his Commander Jawhar as-Siqilli (The Sicilian) took possession of Egypt and Syria in 358 A.H. = 967 A.D.

The Fatimid influence declined in Syria in 472 A.H. = 1079 A.D. but they continued to rule Egypt until 567 A.H. = 1171 A.D. when Salah-ad-Din (Saladin) who annexed Syria and Egypt o the Abbasid State under his rule.

 

Name

A.H

A.D.

  1. Abu Muhammad Ubaydallah al-Mahdi-billah

297 – 322

909 – 934

  1. Abu l - Qasim Muhammad al-Qa’im-billah

322 – 334

934 – 945

  1. Abu Tahir Isma’il al-Mansur Allah

334 – 341

945 - 952

  1. Abu Tamim Ma’d al-Mu’izz li-Din-illah

341 – 365

952 – 975

  1. Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz-billah

365 – 386

975 – 996

  1. Abu Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim bi-Amr-illah

386 – 411

996 – 1020

  1. Abu-l-Hasan Ali az-Zahir li-’izaz Din-illah

411 – 427

1020 – 1035

  1. Abu Tamim Ma’d al-Mustansir-billab

427 – 487

1035 – 1094

 

  1. Abu-1-Qasim Abmad al-Musta’li-billah

487 – 495

1094 – 1101

  1. Abu Ali al-Mansur al-Amir bi-Ahkam-illah

495 – 524

1101 – 1130

  1. Abu -1- Maymun abd-al Majid al-Hafiz li-Din-illah

524 – 544

1130 – 1149

  1. Abu-1-Mansur Isma’il az-Zafir bi-Amr-illah

544 – 549

1149 – 1154

  1. Abu-1-Qasim ‘isa al-Fa’iz bi-Nasr-illah

549 – 555

1154 – 1160

  1. Abu Muhammad Abdallah al-Adid li-Din-illah

555 - 567

1160 - 1171

 

The Fatimid Dirhams and Fals are very rare, that is why all the coins in the display are Dinars dated from the Hijra era.

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The Saljuqs , Atabegs , Ayyubids and Banu Urtuq

 

The names of the Caliphs are in the main fixed on the coins of these rulers. Some of the coins are void of the names.

Those coins date back to the 6 and 7 centuries A.H. = 12 - 13 A.D. We give only the list of the names of the Atabeg and Ayyubid rulers who had influence in Syria.

 

The Atabegs

A.H.

A.D.

Imad-ad-Din Zengi b. Aq Sanqar ( Sinjar )

521 – 541

1127 – 1146

Al-Malik Al-Adil Nur-id-Din Mahmud b. Zengi

(Aleppo then Damascus)

541 – 569

1146 – 1173

 Al-Malik as-Salih Isma’il b. Mahmud

(Aleppo)

569 – 577

1173 - 1181

  

The Ayyubids

A.H.

A.D.

Al-Malik an-Nasir Saladin

Yusuf  b. Ayyub

569 – 589

1174 – 1193

Dynasty Of Saladin

Al-Aziz Imad-ad-Din Uthman b. Yusuf

589 – 595

1193 – 1198

Al-Mansur Muhammad b. Uthman,, al-Adil succeeded him.

595 - 596

1198 – 1199

Dynasty Of Saladin ( branch of Damascus )

Al-Afdal Nur-ad-Din Ali b.Yusuf

Al-Adil succeeded him.

582 – 592

1186 – 1195

Dynasty Of Saladin ( branch of Aleppo )

Az-Zahir Ghiyath-ad-D Ghazi b. Yusuf

582 - 613

1186 – 1216

Al-Aziz Ghiyath-ad-Din Muhammad b.Ghazi

613 – 634

1216 – 1236

 

An-Nasir II Saladin Yusuf b.Muhammad

634 – 658

1236 – 1260

Al-Malik al-Adil Sayf-ad-Din Abu Bakr

Muhammad b.Ayyub

592 – 615

1196 - 1218

Dynasty Of al-Adil ( branch of Egypt )

Ai-Kamil Muhammad b. al-Adil Abu Bakr

615 – 635

1218 – 1238

Al-Adil II Sayf-ad-Din Abu Bakr b. al-Kamil

635 – 637

1238 – 1240

As-Salih Najm - ad-Din Ayyub b. al-Kamil

637 – 647

1240 - 1249

A1-Mu’azzam Turanshah b.as-Salih

647 – 648

1249 – 1250

Al-Ashraf Musa b. al-Adil II

648 - 652

1250 – 1254

Dynasty Of al-Adil ( branch of Damascus )

Al-Muazzam Sharaf-ad-Din ‘isa b. al-Adil

615 – 624

1218 – 1227

An-Nasir Saladin Da’ud b. al-Mu’azzam

624 – 637

1236 – 1239

As-Salih Imad-ad-Din Isma’il b. al-Adli (al-Hakam I )

634 – 637

1236 – 1239

Al-Ashraf Musa b. al-Adil

637

1239

As-Salih Imad-ad-Din Isma’il (al-Hakam II )

637 – 643

1239 -1245

 

 

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The Mamluks

 

  1. The Bahri Mamluks:

They are Turkish Mamluks, brought up and taught the art of war and administration by the Ayyubids. Whet their hands grew strong during the period of the real Ayyubid Kings, they seized the power and established themselves in Egypt and Syria after they had defeated the Mongols at Ein Jalut and driven them out of the country.

Prominent among their early Kings is al-Mailk az-Zahir Rukn-ad-Din Baybars, who acknowledged the genealogy of the Abbasid Prince Ahmad b. Az-Zahir (who sought asylum in Egypt) and raised him to the post of the Caliph under the title al-Mustansir- billah. The Abbasid Caliphate lasted in Egypt until the downfall of the dynasty of the Burji Mamluks.

The displayed coins of the Bahri Mamliks are :

 

 

  1. The Burji Matninks (748 - 922 A.H. = 1382 - 1516 A.D.):

They were most of the Circassians. One of those Mamluks namely Sayf-ad-Din Barquq seized the power from the last Bahri Mamluk Saladin Haji in 784 A.H. The reins of power returned to as-Salih in 791 A.H. and he assumed the power

ultimately in 792 A.H. The form of government remained as it was in the period of these Mamluks, but the rivalry between them and the Ottomans led to their downfall.

The Ottomans

The Ottoman dynasty could dominate Asia minor after they had inherited the rule from the Saljuqs of Rum . The Ottomans stretched their frontiers westwards until nothing remained to the Byzantine State except Constantinople . They captured Bulgaria and large parts of the Balkan . They conquered Constantinople in 1435. They rapidly spread into the East in the reign of Sultan Salim I and took possession of some Persian territories . Ultimately, the Ottomans conquered Syria and Egypt in 922 A.H. = 1916 A.D.

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