OF THE CERAMIC
is made of pure, compact clay. The best
quality of clay is the Kaolin which is
found in China and in certain regions of
Europe like Bohemia. The clay of Syria
is not as good as the Kaolin, that is
why it is always coated with a whitish
layer. As soon as the vessel is modeled
and backed, it is coated with this
material. After that, the vessel is
again baked, colored and dipped in a
solution of Mardasanj ( soluble powder
in water ).When the vessel is placed in
the oven, a glassy material
flows on all its surface. This
coat of glass, named enamel, protects
the vessel and enhance its beauty.
discovered glass by chance in Egypt and
in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium
B.C. In fact, when the mineralls of
copper found, the silica attached to the
copper appeared on the surface. It was
transformed into crystals of silica
mixed with the oxide of copper of a
bluish green color. At the beginning
this material was thrown out as useless.
Later on, man thought of coating the
pottery with this beautiful blue
material when it was in the state of
liquidity and as such a new and useful
industry was discovered. The new
discovery was developed and used in
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria and Persia
during the second millennium B.C.
has practiced the ceramic craft since
the 7th C B.C. They made vessels,
statues and panels out of this material.
They also formed beautiful mural
decorations of small squares.
Arabs and Muslims learnt this craft from
Persia and Byzantium. They manufactured
of different forms and dimensions
according to their needs, notably
amphorae, pitchers, goblets, lamps,
flagons, inkstands, squares, steles,
grave-stones and pegs etc.
production of ceramic developed
considerably in the Muslim world of the
5 - 9 A.H. = 11 - 15 A.D. The Arab
travelers told us a lot about its
abundance and its modest price in spite
of its value and beauty. Certain towns (
Damascus) were famous for the
manufacture of the different forms of
ceramic which was named after them:
ceramic of Qashan, ceramic of Raqqah and
ceramic of Damascus.