Al-Jamhouriya al Arabiya As-Souriya
Bashar al-Assad (2000)
Muhammad Mustafa Miro (2000)
71,498 sq mi (185,180 sq km)
16,728,808 (average annual rate of natural increase: 2.5%); birth
rate: 30.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 33.8/1000; density per sq
Aleppo, 1,591,400; Homs, 644,204; Latakia, 306,535; Hama, 229,000
Arabic (official), French and English widely understood
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Islam 90%, Christian 10%
GDP/PPP (1999 est.): $42.2 billion; per capita $2,500. Real
growth rate: 0%. Inflation: 2.3%.
12%–15% (1998 est.).
wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets;
beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk. Labor force: 4.7 million
(1998 est.); agriculture; 40%; industry, 20%; services, 40% (1996
petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate
resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower.
$3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.): petroleum, textiles, manufactured
goods, fruits and vegetables, raw cotton, live sheep, phosphates.
$3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.): machinery and equipment,
foodstuffs/animals, metal and metal products, textiles, chemicals.
trading partners: Germany, Turkey, Italy, France, Lebanon,
Spain, Ukraine, South Korea, Japan, U.S.
main lines in use: 930,000 (1995); mobile cellular: n.a..
broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998).
4.15 million (1997).
broadcast stations: 54 (of which 36 are low-power and repeater
stations) (1997). Televisions: 1.05 million (1997).
Service Providers (ISPs): n.a.
total: 2,750 km.
total: 36,377 km; paved: 26,299 km (including 877 km of
expressways); unpaved: 10,078 km (1999 est.).
870 km; minimal economic importance.
and harbors: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus.
104 (1999 est.).
Heights is Israeli occupied; dispute with upstream riparian Turkey
over Turkish water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon
since October 1976.