Facts About Canada
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND ( PEI)
-PEI is one of the Atlantic provinces on the east coast
-It is the smallest province.
-The island lies in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
-The Northumberland Strait separates PEI from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
-The capital city is Charlottetown.
-The Island was named "Prince Edward" in honour of the father of Queen Victoria in 1799.
-It is called "the Garden Province" because half of the land is cultivated.
-flower - Lady's Slipper, tree - Northern Red Oak, bird - Blue Jay
-motto : "the small under the protection of the great"
-PEI is the home of 138,600 people.(2007 estimate)
-Over 75 percent are of Scottish, Irish and English descent.
-Summerside is the only other city.
-There are seven incorporated towns.
-The first people to live on the Island were the
-They moved from place to place living in dwellings called wigwams.
-In the winter they hunted and in the summer they fished.
-Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, discovered the island in 1534.
-In 1603 Champlain, another French explorer, came to the island.
-In 1719 a French colony was formed.
-In 1745 the English took over the island.
-The French farmers were expelled.
-The land was divided into large lots and given to British citizens.
-Loyalists from the U.S. came in the 1780s.
-PEI became the seventh Canadian province in 1873.
THE LAND AND WATER
-The province is about 224 km long and from 6 to 64 km
-Most of the island consists of gently rolling hills.
-Prince Edward Island National Park has a large beach with reddish sand, sand dunes, salt marshes and red sandstone cliffs.
-There are over 90 sandy beaches for swimming and boating.
-The northern coast is lined with sand dunes and sand bars.
-temperature in July ranges from high of 23°C to a low of 14°C (average is 18°C)
-In January, temperatures range from a high of -3°C to a low of -12°C (average is -7°C).
-There are frequent winter storms with an average yearly snowfall of 300 cm.
-It is also very windy on the island.
-Agriculture is the largest industry.
-About thirty percent of Canada's potatoes are grown in PEI.
-Other crops include fruits and vegetables (apples, strawberries, blueberries, carrots, onions, tomatoes) and cereal crops.
-Food processing is an important industy (bottling, canning, freezing).
-The second largest industry is tourism.
-Fishing is the third largest industry.
-Fishermen catch herring, tuna, cod and mackerel.
-Lobsters are caught in traps.
-Clams, scallops, mussels and oysters are farmed (in underwater hatcheries)
-Oysters are harvested for Canada and the world.
-Irish moss (a seaweed) is harvested by pulling a special rake along the rocks or on the sea floor.
-It is used to thicken ice cream, cheese and toothpaste.
-The Confederation Bridge joins New Brunswick and PEI.
-The bridge was opened in 1997 and is almost 13 km long.
-It takes 12 minutes to cross the bridge.
-The bridge was built to withstand harsh wind and weather conditions, including ice floes.
-Ferry boats travel from Nova Scotia to PEI.
-There are two airports.
PLACES and PEOPLE
-Charlottetown is the "birthplace of Canada" where
leaders met in 1864 to discuss the formation of our
-Tourists come from around the world to visit Green Gables House. It is a museum about L.M. Montgomery, author of the Anne of Green Gables books.
-The Robert Harris Collection at the Confederation Centre of the Arts (in Charlottetown) consists of some 5,000 works of art.